Sunday, July 28, 2013

A Young Woman's Everyday Clothing c. 1820

The following is a basic wardrobe for a young woman (or girl) in the 1810s through early 1820s. Most of these garments are based on original research or extant pieces in museum. This is a general everyday clothing guideline.

A very wrinkled shift from the Stephenson House wardrobe. Made from Kannik's Korner shift pattern.

Shift – A girl’s or woman’s loose-fitting, basic undergarment. Elvira probably owned several shifts because she wore one next to her skin every day. Shifts helped to protect outer garments from sweat and body soil, and were laundered frequently. They were made of linen, muslin, light-weight wool, or linsey woolsey.

Reproduction corset from an extant garment. This corset was worn by a prepubescent girl.

Stays or Corset – Stays were a close fitting undergarment that enclosed the wearer’s torso. They were stiffened with whalebone or cording during the early 1800s. Some stays laced closed in the front, while others laced at the back. They were a foundation garment that provided support to the outer clothes, and also helped the wearer maintain good posture. Stays were worn by women, girls, and young children.

Bodice petticoat.

Petticoat – A petticoat is similar to what we call a skirt. It could be worn with a working jacket, called a short gown (short, loose, T-shaped jacket with a drawstring at the waist), or under a full gown. Because women’s styles were high-waisted in the early 1800s, petticoats would have needed a bodice or suspenders to keep them at the fashionable waistline. Elvira might have worn a corded petticoat under some of her gowns to give her skirts a bell shape. She also might have worn a quilted petticoat in the winter for warmth.

Betsey from the Stephenson House wardrobe.

Betsey – A Betsey was a shaped piece of fine linen, muslin, or lace, worn by women and girls over the neck and shoulders to fill in a low-cut neckline. This garment is sometimes called a chemisette, tucker, or dickey.

Reproduction gown of an original owned by the Missouri Historical Society.

Gown – In the early 19th century fashionable gowns were high-waisted, full-length dresses. The bodice (or top) was short and did not sit at the natural waist, but under the bust. Some gowns fastened at the back, while others closed in front. There were different ways to close a gown: simple drawstrings, hooks and eyes, buttons, or straight pins. Gowns were made of silk, cotton, linen, or light-weight wool. White would have been a very fashionable color for a young lady, but printed cottons were also very popular.

Yellow spencer over a muslin gown.

Spencer – A spencer was a short, close-fitting jacket worn over the bodice of a gown. Made of wool, cotton, muslin, or silk.

Red wool cloak.

Cloak – A simple, unfitted wrap for cold weather in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Cloaks usually extended from the neck to the knees. Elvira would have worn a cloak with a bonnet and gloves. Cloaks were usually made of heavy wool, but cotton and silk were also used. Red was very popular.

Clocked stockings (left) and plain stockings.

Stockings - Stockings were close-fitting coverings for the foot and lower leg, similar to modern knee socks. Stockings were knitted by hand or on professional knitting machines. Made of silk or cotton thread, and also wool yarn.

Pelisse – A high-waisted coat worn by women and girls in the early 19th century. Made of cotton, muslin, silk, linen, or wool. (Not pictured)

Two bonnets from the Stephenson House wardrobe.

Bonnet – A head covering that framed the face and usually tied under the chin. Made of silk, woven straw/wheat, or wool.

Day Cap – Day caps were head coverings worn by women and girls to dress their heads without having to style their hair elaborately. People did not wash their hair as frequently as we do today, so caps also helped protect the hair from everyday dust and dirt. Day caps could be very simple or very elaborate. Styles depended on many things: age, occasion, time of day, station in life, and type of work performed. Made of fine linen, muslin, cotton, or lace.

Mitts or Mittens – Mitts were elbow-length, fingerless gloves made of linen or silk. They could be sewn from woven cloth, or knitted. Mitts helped keep the wearer warm in winter and protected skin from sun in summer. Mitts also protected the wearer from abrasions during work.  (Not Pictured)

Tuesday, July 2, 2013

The Sewing Box

This post was originally published in the 1820 Col. Benjamin Stephenson House's volunteer newsletter, The Volunteer, May 2011. Written by RoxAnn Grabowski Raisner.

''Twill last all my sewing years!” Thomas Hardy quote

1770-1820 sewing box
Many of us have discovered during our adventures as reenactors or interpreters that maintaining our wardrobe is imperative to any good interpretation. Inevitability, clothing will need to be mended at some point in its life—sometimes more then once. When repairing a garment it is convenient to have a small sewing kit as part of our gear (or in my husband’s case—a spouse that is handy with a needle).

Sewing kits dating to the 1820s or earlier came in a wide variety of styles and sizes. Some were small, easy to carry cloth cases that fit neatly into a pocket or reticule while some were sewing tables tucked into a corner of a room. And as we all know, it’s not the size that counts but how we use it that matters.According to The Workwoman’s Guide published in 1838, “A work-box, or basket, should be large enough to hold a moderate supply of work and all it requisites, without being of such a size as to be inconvenient to carry about, or lift with ease.” The author goes on to state, “There should be in it divisions or partitions, as they assist in the keeping it in order; but some persons are apt to run into extreme of over-partitioning their boxes, which defeats its own purpose and become troublesome: this should be carefully avoided.”

c. 1805 sewing table
Over the years, I have amassed several different types of sewing kits and utensils but I tend to use certain tools that fit neatly in an easy to carry box. My traveling kit is a small wooden band box containing a pin cushion, small scissors, thread, needle case, leather thimble, beeswax, bodkin and a stiletto. Everything I need is tightly contained inside this box purchased from Randy and Sharon Duncan’s sutlery, The Blue Goose, several year ago. As with anything, what suits your needs best is what you will use; this it true for our ancestors too.

A small kit known as a ‘housewife’ contained the basic tools needed to mend a garment; needles, thread, and scissors with the possible additions of buttons and thimble. Women and men carried these simple kits for unforeseen clothing emergencies. Documentation shows that soldiers often included them in their haversacks (a soldier's bag for rations, extra clothing, etc). One such ‘housewife’ was owned by George Shannon and traveled on the famous Lewis & Clark expedition. Shannon’s kit was constructed of red leather instead of cloth.

Reproduction 'housewife'.
Work areas at home provided more space to store larger selections of equipment. Here garments were not just mended but made. The production of a complete garment required more tools than a small ‘housewife’ kit provided. The Workwoman’s Guide offers insight into the contents of a well stocked sewing box or table. “A work-box should contain six or eight of the useful sized white reel sewing cottons, black cotton, and silks, white, black and coloured, both round and for darning; a few useful tapes, bobbin, gallon, buttons of all kinds, including thread, pearl, metal and black; also, hooks and eyes. An ample needle book, containing a page of kerseymere for each sized needle, not omitting the darning, glove, stay, and worsted or carpet needles.” Also important were “various kinds of scissors” used to cut out linen, muslin work and lace. Other items suggested are “A pincushion, an emery cushion, a waxen reel for strengthening thread, a stiletto, bodkins, a thimble, a small knife, and a yard measure...”. Obviously, sewing boxes were a personal item. Tools collected were based on the owners preferences or needs. 

Sewing boxes and tables are intriguing items, even today. One of the most noticeable pieces at Stephenson House is the sewing table in the parlor. Just about every tour through the house will ask “What kind of table is that?” Children especially find the strange (and generally unknown) objects contained inside of it to be fascinating.

Many of the standard sewing tools used by our ancestors are no longer used by the general population today, so they have become obsolete and foreign. Using these objects as interpretive props is an excellent way to engage visitors and keep our heritage alive.

My travel sewing box/kit.